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The Classification of the Picornaviridae

As shown in:

King, A.M.Q., Brown, F., Christian, P., Hovi, T., Hyypiä, T., Knowles, N.J., Lemon, S.M., Minor, P.D., Palmenberg, A.C., Skern, T. and Stanway, G. (2000). Picornaviridae. In "Virus Taxonomy. Seventh Report of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses". Eds Van Regenmortel, M.H.V., Fauquet, C.M., Bishop, D.H.L., Calisher, C.H., Carsten, E.B., Estes, M.K., Lemon, S.M., Maniloff, J., Mayo, M.A., McGeoch, D.J., Pringle, C.R. and Wickner, R.B. Academic Press, New-York, San Diego, pp. 657-673.


  • Family Picornaviridae

    • Genus Enterovirus

    • Genus Rhinovirus

    • Genus Cardiovirus

    • Genus Aphthovirus

    • Genus Hepatovirus

    • Genus Parechovirus

Genus: Enterovirus

Type species: Poliovirus



Species: Poliovirus (PV) (3 serotypes)

human poliovirus 1

[J02281] (PV-1)

human poliovirus 2

[M12197] (PV-2)

human poliovirus 3

[K01392] (PV-3)

Species: Human enterovirus A (HEV-A) (10 serotypes)

human coxsackievirus A2

[L28146, X87585] (CV-A2)*

human coxsackievirus A3

[X87586] (CV-A3)

human coxsackievirus A5

[X87588] (CV-A5)

human coxsackievirus A7

[X87589] (CV-A7)

human coxsackievirus A8

[X87590] (CV-A8)

human coxsackievirus A10

[X87591] (CV-A10)

human coxsackievirus A12

[X87593] (CV-A12)

human coxsackievirus A14

[X87595] (CV-A14)

human coxsackievirus A16

[U05876] (CV-A16)

human enterovirus 71

[U22521] (EV-71)

Species: Human enterovirus B (HEV-B) (36 serotypes)

human coxsackievirus B1

[M16560] (CV-B1)

human coxsackievirus B2

[AF081485] (CV-B2)

human coxsackievirus B3

[M88483] (CV-B3)

human coxsackievirus B4

[X05690] (CV-B4)

human coxsackievirus B5
(including swine vesicular disease virus)

[X67706, D00435] (CV-B5)

human coxsackievirus B6

[AF039205] (CV-B6)

human coxsackievirus A9

[D00627] (CV-A9)

human echovirus 1

[X89531] (E-1)

human echovirus 2

[X89532] (E-2)

human echovirus 3

[X89533] (E-3)

human echovirus 4

[X89534] (E-4)

human echovirus 5

[X89535] (E-5)

human echovirus 6

[U16283] (E-6)

human echovirus 7

[X89538] (E-7)

human echovirus 9

[X84981, X92886] (E-9)

human echovirus 11

[X80059] (E-11)

human echovirus 12

[X79047] (E-12)

human echovirus 13

[X89542] (E-13)

human echovirus 14

[X89543] (E-14)

human echovirus 15

[X89544] (E-15)

human echovirus 16

[X89545] (E-16)

human echovirus 17

[X89546] (E-17)

human echovirus 18

[X89547] (E-18)

human echovirus 19

[X89548] (E-19)

human echovirus 20

[X89549] (E-20)

human echovirus 21

[X89550] (E-21)

human echovirus 24

[X89551] (E-24)

human echovirus 25

[X90722, X89552] (E-25)

human echovirus 26

[X89553] (E-26)

human echovirus 27

[X89554] (E-27)

human echovirus 29

[X89555] (E-29)

human echovirus 30

[X89556] (E-30)

human echovirus 31

[X89557] (E-31)

human echovirus 32

[X89558] (E-32)

human echovirus 33

[X89559] (E-33)

human enterovirus 69

[X87605] (EV-69)


Species: Human enterovirus C (HEV-C) (11 serotypes)

human coxsackievirus A1

[X87584] (CV-A1)

human coxsackievirus A11

[X87592] (CV-A11)

human coxsackievirus A13

[X87594] (CV-A13)

human coxsackievirus A15

[X87596] (CV-A15)

human coxsackievirus A17

[X87597] (CV-A17)

human coxsackievirus A18

[X87598] (CV-A18)

human coxsackievirus A19

[X87599] (CV-A19)

human coxsackievirus A20

[X87600] (CV-A20)

human coxsackievirus A21

[D00538] (CV-A21)

human coxsackievirus A22

[X87603] (CV-A22)

human coxsackievirus A24

[D90457] (CV-A24)


Species: Human enterovirus D (HEV-D) (2 serotypes)

human enterovirus 68

[X87604] (EV-68)

human enterovirus 70

[D00820] (EV-70)


Species: Bovine enterovirus (BEV) (2 serotypes)

bovine enterovirus 1

[D00214] (BEV-1)

bovine enterovirus 2

[X79369] (BEV-2)


Species: Porcine enterovirus A (PEV-A) (1 serotype)

porcine enterovirus 8

[AJ001391] (PEV-8)


Species: Porcine enterovirus B (PEV-B) (2 serotypes)

porcine enterovirus 9

[Y14459] (PEV-9)

porcine enterovirus 10



Serotypes not yet assigned to a species (22 serotypes)

human coxsackievirus A4


human coxsackievirus A6


Simian enterovirus 1 to 18

  (SEV-1 to 18)

Simian enterovirus N125


Simian enterovirus N203



*Note: The alternative abbreviations, CAV-2, etc, are widely used.

Tentative Species in the Genus

None reported


Genus: Rhinovirus

Type species: Human rhinovirus A



Species: Human rhinovirus A (HRV-A) (18 serotypes) 

human rhinovirus 1†

[D00239] (HRV-1)

human rhinovirus 2

[X02316] (HRV-2)

human rhinovirus 7

[Z47564] (HRV-7)

human rhinovirus 9


human rhinovirus 11

[Z47565] (HRV-11)

human rhinovirus 15


human rhinovirus 16

[L24917] (HRV-16)

human rhinovirus 21

[Z47566] (HRV-21)

human rhinovirus 29

[Z47567] (HRV-29)

human rhinovirus 36

[Z49123] (HRV-36)

human rhinovirus 39


human rhinovirus 49

[Z47568] (HRV-49)

human rhinovirus 50

[Z47569] (HRV-50)

human rhinovirus 58

[Z47570] (HRV-58)

human rhinovirus 62

[Z47571] (HRV-62)

human rhinovirus 65

[Z47572] (HRV-65)

human rhinovirus 85


human rhinovirus 89

[M16248] (HRV-89)


Species: Human rhinovirus B (HRV-B) (3 serotypes)


human rhinovirus 3

[U60874] (HRV-3)

human rhinovirus 14

[K02121, K01087, L05355] (HRV-14)

human rhinovirus 72

[Z47574] (HRV-72)



Serotypes not yet assigned to a species (82 serotypes)

bovine rhinovirus 1


bovine rhinovirus 2


bovine rhinovirus 3


human rhinovirus 4 to 6

  (HRV-4 to 6)

human rhinovirus 8


human rhinovirus 10 to 13

  (HRV-10 to 13)

human rhinovirus 17 to 20

  (HRV-17 to 20)

human rhinovirus 22 to 28

  (HRV-22 to 28)

human rhinovirus 30 to 38

  (HRV-30 to 38)

human rhinovirus 40 to 48

  (HRV-40 to 48)

human rhinovirus 51 to 57

  (HRV-51 to 57)

human rhinovirus 59 to 61

  (HRV-59 to 61)

human rhinovirus 63 to 64

  (HRV-63 to 64)

human rhinovirus 66 to 71

  (HRV-66 to 71)

human rhinovirus 73 to 84

  (HRV-73 to 84)

human rhinovirus 86 to 88

  (HRV-86 to 88)

human rhinovirus 90 to 100

  (HRV-90 to 100)


† HRV-1 is divided into two antigenic subtypes referred to as HRV-1A and HRV-1B.

Tentative Species in the Genus

None reported


Genus: Cardiovirus

Type species: Encephalomyocarditis virus



Species: Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) (1 serotype)

encephalomyocarditis virus [M81861] (EMCV)
Columbia SK virus
Maus Elberfeld virus

Species: Theilovirus (ThV) (3 serotypes)

Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus [M20562] (TMEV)
Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus [M80888, M94868] (VHEV)
rat encephalomyelitis virus [M80884] (REV)
Mengovirus, Columbia SK virus and Maus Elberfeld virus are strains of EMCV, based on serological cross-reaction and sequence identity.
Tentative Species in the Genus

None reported


Genus: Aphthovirus

Type species: Foot-and-mouth disease virus



Species: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) (7 serotypes)

type O [M35873, X00871] (FMDV-O)
type A [L11360, M10975] (FMDV-A)
type C [X00130, J02191] (FMDV-C)
type Asia 1 [U01207] (FMDV-Asia1)
type SAT 1 [Z98203] (FMDV-SAT1)
type SAT 2   (FMDV-SAT2)
type SAT 3 [M28719] (FMDV-SAT3)

Species: Equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) (1 serotype)

equine rhinitis A virus (formerly equine rhinovirus 1) [L43052, X96870]


Tentative Species in the Genus

None reported


Genus: Hepatovirus

Type species: Hepatitis A virus



Species: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) (1 serotype, 2 strains)

human hepatitis A virus [M14707] (HHAV)
simian hepatitis A virus [D00924] (SHAV)
Tentative Species in the Genus

Species: " Avian encephalomyelitis-like viruses" (AEV) (1 serotype)

avian encephalomyelitis virus  [AJ225173]



Genus: Parechovirus

Type species: Human parechovirus



Species: Human parechovirus (HPeV) (2 serotypes)

human parechovirus 1 (formerly human echovirus 22) [L02971] (HPeV-1)
human parechovirus 2 (formerly human echovirus 23) [AJ005695] (HPeV-2)
Tentative Species in the Genus

None reported


Unassigned Species in the Family


Species: Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) (1 serotype)

equine rhinitis B virus (formerly equine rhinovirus 2) [X96871] 



Species: Aichi virus (AiV) (1 serotype)

Aichi virus [AB010145] (AiV)

Species: Porcine teschovirus (PTV) (1 serotype)

porcine teschovirus 1 (formerly porcine enterovirus 1)   (PTV-1)

Possible additional serotypes in the species

porcine enterovirus 2-7   (PEV-2 to 7)
porcine enterovirus 11-13   (PEV-11 to 13)

List of Unassigned Viruses in the Family

acid-stable equine picornaviruses   (EqPV)
avian entero-like virus 2 to 4   (AELV-1 to 3)
avian nephritis virus 1 to 3   (ANV-1 to 3)
barramundi virus-1   (BaV)
cockatoo entero-like virus   (CELV)
duck hepatitis virus 1   (DHV-1)
duck hepatitis virus 3   (DHV-3)
equine rhinovirus 3   (ERV-3)
Guineafowl transmissible enteritis virus   (GTEV)
harbour seal picorna-like virus   (SPLV)
Ljungan virus [AF020541] (LV)
sea-bass virus-1   (SBV)
Sikhote-Alyn virus   (SAV)
smelt virus-1   (SmV-1)
smelt virus-2   (SmV-2)
Syr-Daria Valley fever virus   (SDFV)
taura syndrome virus of marine penaeid shrimp   (TSV)
turbot virus-1   (TuV-1)
turkey entero-like virus   (TELV)
turkey hepatitis virus   (THV)
turkey pseudo enterovirus 1 to 2   (TPEV-1 to 2)
* Ljungan virus is most closely related to the parechoviruses.
The significance of the reported serological cross-reaction between cricket paralysis virus and EMCV is not presently understood.