Study Group
Enterovirus C
Enterovirus interleaved
Enterovirus A
Enterovirus B
Enterovirus C
Enterovirus D
Enterovirus E
Enterovirus F
Enterovirus G
Enterovirus H
Enterovirus J
Rhinovirus A
Rhinovirus B
Rhinovirus C
Unassigned types
Combining types

Genus Enterovirus

Species Enterovirus C

New type Strain ID Proposer Supporting data Accession Reference(s)
EV-C95 5-05 Helene Norder VP1 n/a Norder et al., unpublished
EV-C96 SVK03-24 Merja Roivainen VP1 EF364404 Smura et al., 2007
BAN00-10488 CG EF015886 Brown et al., 2009
10548c VP1(p) AY919538 Oberste et al., 2006
EV-C99 10461-ban00 Mark Pallansch VP1 AY919447 Oberste et al., 2006
  USA-GA84-10636   CG EF555644 Brown et al., 2009
EV-C102 10424-BAN99 Mark Pallansch VP1
Oberste et al., 2006
Brown et al., 2009
EV-C104 CL-1231094 FL Caroline Tapparel CG(p) EU840733 Tapparel et al., 2009
EV-C105 TW/NTU07-1841 Hui Ling Cheng &
Chuan Liang Kao
VP1 n/a Cheng et al., unpublished
34S/DRC/2010 CG JX514943 Lukashev et al., 2012
EV-C109 NICA08-4327 Nathan Yozwiak CG GQ865517 Yozwiak et al., 2010
EV-C113 BAN-11609 Steve Oberste VP1 n/a Oberste et al., unpub.
  BBD-48 (Bangladesh, 2009)   CG(p) KC344833 Tokarz et al., unpub.
  BBD-83 (Bangladesh, 2009)   CG(p) KC344834 Tokarz et al., unpub.
EV-C116 126/Russia/2010 Alexander Lukashev
& Olga Trotsenko
CG JX514942 Lukashev et al., 2012
EV-C117 LIT22 (Lithuania/2011) Cristina Daleno, Alessia Scala,
Antonio Piralla, Susanna Esposito
& Nicola Principi
CG JX262382 Daleno et al., 2012
EV-C118 ISR10 (Israel/2011)
ISR/38 (Israe/2011)
Cristina Daleno, Nicola Principi
& Susanna Esposito
Daleno et al., unpub. data

n/a, not available yet.
CG, complete genome sequence
(p), partial sequence
prototype strains are shown in bold type


Bailly, J.L., Cardoso, M.C. and Peigue-Lafeuille H. (2004). Isolation and identification of an enterovirus 77 recovered from a refugee child from Kosovo, and characterization of the complete virus genome. Virus Res. 99: 147-155.
Blomqvist S, Savolainen C, Raman L, Roivainen M, Hovi T. (2002). Human rhinovirus 87 and enterovirus 68 represent a unique serotype with rhinovirus and enterovirus features. J Clin Microbiol. 40: 4218-4223.
Brown, B., Oberste, M.S., Maher, K. and, Pallansch, M.A. (2003). Complete genomic sequencing shows that polioviruses and members of human enterovirus species C are closely related in the noncapsid coding region. J. Virol. 77: 8973-8984.
Brown, B.A., Maher, K., Flemister, M.R., Naraghi-Arani, P., Uddin, M., Oberste, M.S. and Pallansch, M.A. (2009). Resolving ambiguities in genetic typing of human enterovirus species C clinical isolates and identification of enterovirus 96, 99 and 102. J. Gen. Virol. 90: 1713-1723.
Daleno, C., Piralla, A., Scala, A., Baldanti, F., Usonis, V., Principi, N. and Esposito, S. (2012). Complete genome sequence of a novel human enterovirus C (HEV-C117) identified in a child with community-acquired pneumonia. J. Virol. 86: 10888-10889.
Junttila, N., Leveque, N., Kabue, J.P., Cartet, G., Mushiya, F., Muyembe-Tamfum, J.J., Trompette, A., Lina, B., Magnius, L.O., Chomel, J.J. and Norder, H. (2007). New enteroviruses, EV-93 and EV-94, associated with acute flaccid paralysis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. J. Med. Virol. 79: 393-400.
Ishiko, H., Miura, R., Shimada, Y., Hayashi, A., Nakajima, H., Yamazaki, S. and Takeda, N. (2002). Human rhinovirus 87 identified as human enterovirus 68 by VP4-based molecular diagnosis. Intervirology 45: 136-141.
Liu et al., 2000
Lukashev, A.N., Drexler, J.F., Kotova, V.O., Amjaga, E.N., Reznik, V.I., Gmyl, A.P., Grard, G., Tay Taty, R., Trotsenko, O.E., Leroy, E.M. and Drosten, C. (2012). Novel types 105 and 116 are members of distinct subgroups of Human enterovirus C. J. Gen. Virol., in press.
Norder, H., Bjerregaard, L., Magnius, L., Lina, B., Aymard, M. and Chomel, J.J. (2003). Sequencing of 'untypable' enteroviruses reveals two new types, EV-77 and EV-78, within human enterovirus type B and substitutions in the BC loop of the VP1 protein for known types. J. Gen. Virol. 84: 827-836.
Oberste, M.S., Maher, K., Kilpatrick, D.R. and Pallansch, M.A. (1999). Molecular evolution of the human enteroviruses: correlation of serotype with VP1 sequence and application to picornavirus classification. J. Virol. 73: 1941-1948.
Oberste et al, 2002
Oberste, M.S., Michele, S.M., Maher, K., Schnurr, D., Cisterna, D., Juntilla, N., Uddin, M., Chomel, J.J., Lau, C.S., Ridha, W., al-Busaidy, S., Norder, H., Magnius, L.O. and Pallansch, M.A. (2004). Molecular identification and characterization of two proposed new enterovirus serotypes, EV74 and EV75. J. Gen. Virol. 85: 3205-3212.
Oberste, M.S., Maher, K., Michele, S.M., Belliot, G., Uddin, M. and Pallansch, M.A. (2005). Enteroviruses 76, 89, 90 and 91 represent a novel group within the species Human enterovirus A. J. Gen. Virol. 86: 445-451.
Oberste, M.S., Maher, K., Williams, A.J., Dybdahl-Sissoko, N., Brown, B.A., Gookin, M.S., Penaranda, S., Mishrik, N., Uddin, M. and Pallansch, M.A. (2006). Species-specific RT-PCR amplification of human enteroviruses: a tool for rapid species identification of uncharacterized enteroviruses J. Gen. Virol. 87: 119-128.
Oberste, M.S., Maher, K., Nix, W.A., Michele, S.M., Uddin, M., Schnurr, D., al-Busaidy, S., Akoua-Koffi, C. and Pallansch, M.A. (2007). Molecular identification of 13 new enterovirus types, EV79-88, EV97, and EV100-101, members of the species Human Enterovirus B. Virus Res. 128: 34-42.
Savolainen, C., Blomqvist, S., Mulders, M.N. and Hovi, T. (2002). Genetic clustering of all 102 human rhinovirus prototype strains: serotype 87 is close to human enterovirus 70. J. Gen. Virol. 83: 333-340.

Smura, T.P., Juanttila, N., Blomqvist, S., Norder, H., Kaijalainen, S., Paananen, A., Magnius, L.O., Hovi, T. and Roivainen, M. (2007). Enterovirus 94, a proposed new serotype in human enterovirus species D. J. Gen. Virol. 88: 849-858.

Tapparel, C., Junier, T., Gerlach, D., Van-Belle, S., Turin, L., Cordey, S., Mühlemann, K., Regamey, N., Aubert, J.D., Soccal, P.M., Eigenmann, P., Zdobnov, E. and Kaiser, L. (2009). New respiratory enterovirus and recombinant rhinoviruses among circulating picornaviruses. Emerg. Infect Dis. 15: 719-726.
van den Broek, P., Shimizu, H., Maas, J., Li, C., Utama, A., Miyamura, T., Luken, M., Beld, M., Berkhout, B., van der Hoek, L. and Mang, R. A novel human enterovirus serotype in fecal samples from HIV-1 infected persons and patients with acute flaccid paralysis. Unpublished.
Yang, X.-H., Pang, W.-Y.,  Xu, W.-B.,  Mao, N.-Y. and Yan, Y.-S. A preliminary study on a suspicious new type enteroviruses. Unpublished. [EPI, Fujian CDC, 76 Jing Tai Road, FuZhou, Fujian 350001, China]